Tandem

FAQ - answers

 

by Juergen Wolff, 2/2009 

Note:

If the links keep taking you back to the first page, you should print the appropriate page off ( www.tandemcity.info/tandem/en40_faq.htm ) which will guide you through the numbered questions.

1. Kinds of membership

1.1 (statute: 21, 22) What is the difference between members and licensees?

'Members' are public and similar institutions which use the tandem method but do not advertise commercial language courses with Tandem.

'Licence holders' are generally language schools or language centres in public institutions, which offer language courses apart from tandem mediation. Some of them are members of the language school federation 'Tandem® International'.

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1.2 (statute: 27, 29) What does the Licence make easier?

In order to obtain a licence, an institution in the process of admission needs to show interest in the method and to provide some data about itself (two pages). The rights and obligations of a licence-holder are more limited.

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1.3 (contract TF/TI) What is the difference between a Licence and Membership in “Tandem International”?

All users of the tandem method, who are not members, can obtain a licence. Alternatively, language schools can become members of the federation of private language schools, Tandem International, which has a global licence from Tandem Fundazioa. This association has its own fees and finances common marketing activities, the web www.tandem-schools.com and the Tandem Community.

Institutions interested in obtaining a licence should contact Tandem Fundazioa; those who would like to become members of Tandem International should first contact Tandem International. (In the event of not being admitted to Tandem International, the institution can obtain a licence from the Tandem Fundazioa. E.g. Tandem International does not admit  schools of less than 3 years of existence, but Tandem Fundazioa does.)

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1.4 Can language schools become members of Tandem Fundazioa ?

No, that is not a free choice. The distinction between membership and holding a licence has been set up according to objective criteria established by the foundations register of the Basque Country. Institutions which recruit with ‘Tandem’ for language courses may not become members, only licence-holders.

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1.5 What is the situation if someone only wants to sell courses, and nothing else, for Tandem schools?

Membership is not necessary. The interested party simply approaches the schools for whom s/he would like to work as an agent and makes the appropriate agreement. S/he can also contact the marketing responsible of Tandem International, the central office for all TI schools. The usual rate of commission is around 20%.

The agent is, however, not entitled to use the registered trade mark TANDEM® indefinitely (although s/he may use it while advertising for a tandem school.)

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1.6  Can individuals become members ?

In rare cases where it is not possible for the whole institution to become member of Tandem, interested parties may become promoters. This gives them access to material but not to the use of the registered trade mark.

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2. Methodical questions

2.1 What exactly is the Tandem method?

Basically, it is a way of organising the learning process whereby two native speakers exchange their languages and culture. This can take place in pairs (tandem pairs or single tandems) or in bi-national groups (a tandem course).

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2.2 Must Tandem methodology be applied throughout the entire educational programme of an institution?

Every Tandem member institution and TI Member must offer at least one tandem form. This is often the partnership mediation. However, other forms, i.e. teacher-guided language courses, can be applied.

Of course, it is best if the tandem approach spreads across the entire institution. How to achieve this is revealed in the introductory courses.

There are no rules for the licence-holder with reference to the application of the method. The licence provides the right to use it but not the obligation.

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2.3 Must the institution offer courses in its own language ?

The institution is not obliged to offer courses in the language of the country in which it operates, but it must be in a position to be able to find exchange partners in the local/national language.

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2.4 What must be done if only one language is represented at the institution ?

In this case, the Tandem mediators must be multi-lingual or mediate in 'tandem' with foreigners.

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2.5 What material is available?

Members and licence-holders are entitled to:

* Use of the material developed in the TANDEM net without copyright restrictions :

- Tips for single tandems on Albanian, Arab, Basque, Bulgarian, Czech, Danish, English, French, German, Hungarian, Italian, Lithuanian, Polish, Portuguese, Serbo-Croat, Slovenian, Spanish, Turkish (on paper or electronic)

- Tips on reading for specialized tandems in Basque, German, English, French, Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, Slovenian (partly on paper, partly electronic).

* Documentation on the execution of intercultural tandems (German and Spanish, if required)

* Practical guidebook/CD for multilingual tandems 'Babylonia Tandem' (English, German, Italian, Spanish)

* Handbook/CD for crossborder tandem projects 'Mugaz Gain' (Basque, English, French, German, Spanish, if close to a border)

* current literature

* Participation in the teacher training seminars of the foundation, members at 1/3 price, licence-holders at 2/3 price, with the possibility of further courses being organized between TF and other institutions.

* Participation of all employees (also free lancers/ people on short-term contracts) in all the language courses offered by the approximately 25 Tandem International schools world-wide. TI members for free and TF members and licence-holders receive a 20% discount.

* Support for diploma and postgraduate students working on tandem-related topics, plus the opportunity for practical experience with the Tandem Foundation in Donostia/San Sebastián.

* Orientation with the help of the research register and access to our collection of material (reference library and copying service)

* Opportunity to organise the congress  ‘International TANDEM Conference’ at their own institution.

* Up-to-date information on research and other large-scale projects, consultation and contact intermediation

* Free provision of the magazine 'Tandem News' (PDF) three times annually.

* The right to use the registered trade mark ‘TANDEM'® with the legend ‘‘Recognised in use of the Tandem method’, or  ‘Registered in use of the Tandem method’, according to the statutes, providing legal protection against illegal users.

Beside the specific advantages listed above, membership or the licence offers inclusion in a world-wide net of specialist knowledge and practitioners in more than a dozen countries, forming a large pool of experience in the areas of language, culture and exchange.

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2.6 How many working hours are needed for a tandem project?

That is difficult to say. For an experienced mediator a tandem selection needs 15 minutes, the introduction of a pair 30 minutes, and a group presentation 60 minutes. A weekly consulting hour must be offered, which can also be used for the presentation.

The preparation of tandem courses is like class preparation but with more additional co-ordination in the teachers’ tandem.

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2.7 Does Tandem® offer 'credits' or certificates?

Many Tandem institutions are authorised to test for specific language certificates upon which the course structure of the usual curriculum is modelled.

Some assign a certificate for tandem experiences, if they are documented by logs or accompanied by an advisor.

The Foundation provides a certificate for tandem mediators on conclusion of an introductory course or long-distance study of the self-access package.

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2.8 Why must a receipt be issued for an intermediation fee?

To ensure that a tandem partnership is within the financial possibilities of someone who cannot afford a language course, there is a maximum limit for the commission fee in the quality criteria. The receipt guarantees that this upper limit is not exceeded.

This amount only covers the costs of basic organisation. Additional services, such as learning technique courses and/or guided experience exchanges between tandem pairs should, like language tuition, be calculated apart.

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2.9 Is participation in the introductory course obligatory?

Before admission, members  must send their future mediator to an introductory course at Tandem Fundazioa. Licence-holders are recommended to participate but are not obliged. It is most meaningful if two people with different native languages participate. There is also a tutored self-access version.

In addition there are regular ' updates ', which are voluntary, i.e. after the yearly plenary session of the TI schools.

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2.10 Do institutions have to pay for the introductory course, and, if so, how much?

The introductory courses for admission cost the usual market prices (2009: €130 for 14-16 instruction units. The self-access course including correction and two hours of tutoring: €190 plus visit at a practice center). Following admission, members pay 1/3 of the fee and licence-holders 2/3.

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3. Statutes and co-operation

3.1 (statute: 26) What rights does a Tandem Fundazioa member have?

The members have the right,

a) to select, control, and vote out all posts in the foundation

b) to offer themselves for all posts.

c) to use the registered trade mark TANDEM with the green lilac spiral and the legend 'recognized in use of the tandem method';

d) to use the copyright protected material NR. 128.568 and all material compiled by members of the foundation;

e) to carry out tandem pair intermediation and associated (language) courses;

f) to participate in all projects of the foundation;

g) to publish their experiences provided that different regulations of the statute do not prohibit it

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3.2 (statute: 28) What obligations does a Tandem Fundazioa member have?

The obligations of the members and licensees are in reality a kind of agenda for co-operation within a federation of institutions which collaborate without losing their independence.

Members have the following obligations:

a) to use the legend 'recognized in use of the tandem method' with the Logo of the foundation and the address 'www. tandemcity.info' in all tandem-referred publicity;

b) to undertake no tandem activities after withdrawal in accordance with article 7;

c) to inform the department of the foundation responsible for trade-mark protection in the event of infringement on the registered trade mark in their sphere of influence;

d) to pay the contributions;

e) to respect the upper limit for the tandem single intermediation which is specified annually by the foundation council;

f) to send a copy of all tandem-related publications and their brochures free of charge to the appropriate department of the foundation,

g) to have on constant display a poster from the foundation on the tandem method on which the name and consulting hours of the person in the institution responsible for tandem intermediation is shown;

h) to communicate to the foundation the name and e-mail of the people responsible for tandem intermediation;

i) to send to all members an annual circular on the institution’s situation and activities;

j) to participate in the plenary assemblies and take turns in organising them;

k) to protect material from imitators by using either the symbol ® or © after the word TANDEM or, in the case of scientific texts, to use a footnote;

l) to display the publicity of other members and licence-holders in the same area, and to name the foundation in their publications as the body responsible for information on new members and licence-holders;

m) to inform, before commencing tandem activities, other members or licence-holders already operating in the same town or city;

n) to inform the department of the foundation responsible for recruitment of potential new members or licence-holders;

o) not to try to register the registered trade mark TANDEM alone or independently;

p) not to participate in companies which contravene the above-mentioned obligations;

q) to train those people responsible for tandem intermediation by ensuring that they participate in the foundation’s introductory course or the long-distance self-access course;

r) to familiarise those people responsible for tandem intermediation with the latest developments in training by ensuring they participate at least every five years in the foundation’s training courses or the long-distance self-access programme;

s) to apply the quality controls developed by the foundation in the intermediation.

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3.3 (by-law: 27) What rights does a Tandem Fundazioa (TF) licence-holder have?

Licence-holders have the right:

a) to participate in the AGMs of the foundation as a guest with the right to participate orally;

b) to use the registered trade mark with the legend 'registered in use of the tandem method ' without the foundation’s logo;

c) to use copyright protected material;

d) to carry out tandem single intermediation and associated courses in the context of their sphere of influence and other conditions;

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3.4 (statute: 29) What obligations does a TF licence-holder have?

Licence-holders are obliged:

a) to use the legend 'registered in use of the tandem method' and the address 'www.tandemcity.info' or 'www.tandemcity.com' in all tandem-related publicty;

b) in accordance with Article 7, to undertake no tandem activities after expiry of the licence;

c) to inform the department of the foundation responsible for trade-mark protection in the event of infringement on the registered trade mark in their sphere of influence;

d) to pay the contributions;

e) to respect the upper limit for the tandem single intermediation which is specified annually by the foundation council;

f) to send a copy of their brochures and all tandem-related publications free of charge to the appropriate department of the foundation;

g) to have on constant display a poster on the tandem method from the foundation.

h) to communicate to the foundation the name and e-mail of the people responsible for tandem intermediation;

i) to submit annually statistical data on the application of the tandem method, as requested by the foundation;

j) to protect material from imitators by using either the symbol ® or © after the word TANDEM or, in the case of scientific texts, to use a footnote;

k) to display the publicity of other members and licence-holders in the same area, and to name the foundation in their publications as the body responsible for information on new members and licence-holders;

l) to inform, before commencing tandem activities, other members or licence-holders already operating in the same town or city;

m) not to try to register the registered trade mark TANDEM alone or independently;

n) not to participate in companies which contravene the above-mentioned obligations;

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3.5 (contract TF/TI) What rights does a member of ‘Tandem International' have?

Members of Tandem International may also use 'TANDEM + name of the city' as their company name within the context of the global licence of TI. Their additional rights and obligations are laid out in a contract in accordance with their common history. Both TF and TI developed from the Tandem net, and see themselves as ‘two pillars under a roof’.

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3.6 (contract TF/TI) What obligations does a member of ‘Tandem International’ have ?

For TI members the TF/TI contract stipulates rights and obligations that are similar to other licence-holders, e.g. price reductions, the use of the foundation's name on homepages and advertisements, etc. The contract is exchanged before admission to TI and forms part of the conditions to be met in order to become a TI member.

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3.7 (statute: 21+22) What kinds of institutions can become members?

The conditions specified by statute at the establishment of the Tandem Foundation have been partially re-interpreted over time. They originally applied to full members as follows:

a) Originally, full members were classified legally as charities, not-for-profit organisations or co-operatives. Over time, ever more exceptions were made for those countries where these legal forms do not exist. As the plenary assembly with a 2/3 majority can permit other forms, profit-driven companies, private companies or family businesses became members. However, no schools are accepted or licensed if the management does not consist of teachers or does not work locally in the school. (To ensure that the tandem idea remains in the correct hands.)

b) at least four people, with at least two different languages, who can guarantee their presence in the following year to secure continuity and interculturality.

c) appropriate educational methodology for the application of tandem methods and an intercultural approach.

d) location in an area that is not over-subscribed (with the aim that all potential tandem partners use one intermediation centre, and thereby increase the opportunities for intermediation. In addition, there is also a division of the market shares for language courses for foreigners as tandem schools in a country complement rather than compete with each other.)

The Foundation Register of the Basque Country  has decreed in the meantime that only public or similar institutions, which do not advertise commercial language courses with Tandem, can become full members. Other types of institutions can become licence-holders.

Additional conditions apply to membership of Tandem International. Consult the TI co-ordinator for further information.

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3.8 (statute: 21+22) Can private schools become members?

Whilst they cannot become members of "Tandem Fundazioa", they can become licence-holders with "Tandem Fundazioa" and members of "Tandem International".

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3.9 (statute: 21) Which nationalities must be in the team?

Ideally, the team consists of native speakers and foreigners. However, there are schools where only native speakers work. In such cases, these mediators must speak foreign languages and have experience of living abroad.

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3.10 (statute: 28) Can a recently-created school open immediately under the name 'TANDEM®'?

Only schools which are members of 'Tandem International', can combine 'Tandem' and the name of the city. In practice the admission procedure takes some months, and if there is no infrastructure, it is unlikely that admission will be granted.

It is, therefore, often the case that a school begins with its own name, and then adds the name ‘Tandem + name of the city’. This is a cheaper process than re-naming.

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3.11 What is the relationship between the individual institution and the “centre”.?

Tandem does not have a headquarters as do the Goethe-Institut, the British Council, the Alliance Française or the different franchise chains. The foundation is responsible for certain joint tasks, and functions as a partner with reference to the world at large. However, exactly like certain other professional bodies, it is more a service institution than a headquarters.

As its members define the internal structure of TI, things may change, but for the time being the points covered in 3.11 apply.

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3.12 What is the relationship between the individual countries and the overall organisation?

All questions which concern one country are sorted out within that country. Questions which apply to more than one country are discussed internationally.

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3.13 (statute: 24) What happens if there is already a TANDEM® in a region/city?

There are only two members in a city provided the ‘older’ member agrees. Both will share their intermediation databanks.

Licence-holders do not have right of veto against new admissions in ' their ' region. The decision is made by the plenary assembly of members or the executive committee. In addition, the foundation makes sure that the intermediation is co-ordinated.

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3.14 (statute: 24) Is participation in the plenary assembly obligatory?

For members, yes.

TI has its own plenary assemblies with its own regulations.

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4. The teachers

4.1 What qualifications are necessary?

Since all institutions are independent with regard to labour law, they determine their qualification requirements themselves. Usually it is a mixture of the relevant university studies and teacher experience.

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4.2 How do labour laws affect teachers involved in TANDEM ?

This is also a matter for decision inside of  the institutions. They represent a selection of employment situations, ranging from associations who pay their employees by the hour to institutions with employees on temporary contracts, co-operatives, private companies, and medium-sized businesses.

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4.3 How are the teachers paid ?

That depends on local conditions since everyone is employed and paid by their institution. Accordingly, applications should be sent direct to the institution, and not to the foundation.

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4.4 How does the teacher exchange work?

Teacher exchange is understood by TANDEM in a broad sense, i.e. someone can temporarily work with another institution even if someone from the other institution does not replace him/her at the same time.

Whosoever is interested in an exchange programme, should write direct to the institution where they should like to work. Employment conditions of the institution being visited always apply.

In rare cases, schools have made a 1:1 exchange and have in each case  managed to maintain their pay structure for their own employees.

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5. Financial questions

5.1 How much do courses with TANDEM schools cost?

Each school determines its own prices. See the web page: www.tandem-schools.com

In some countries, institutions ensure that there is not too wide a price range.

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5.2 What other costs are involved?

Accommodation and cultural programme tariffs, etc, are determined by the school. Local conditions, naturally, play a big role.

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5.3 What is the member or licence fee ?

Licence-holders pay an admission fee of 300€, public institutions and those without commercial activities only 200€.

Members pay 100€ each following year. 

A fee of 300€ is payable each following year by licence-holders, being 200€ in case of public institutions and those without commercial activities. Members of TI pay a similar amount to TI and then it is transferred to TF.

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5.4 What is the discount for recently-created schools and "Third World" schools?

There is a reduced admission fee (request exact amount at network@tandem-f.org) for recently-created institutions who want to acquire a licence.

Institutions in "Third World" and countries with soft currencies can ' pay ' up to half the admission fee in kind, e.g. translations.

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5.5 How much is the admission fee, annual and other costs for members or licence-holders?

See the following price categories (the exact current amount will be supplied on request via the contact address above):

 

TANDEM® membership (for public institutions)


1. Preliminary costs

1.1. Introductory course: 2-3 days attendance: 130€

or

Long distance self-access course (video, cassettes, texts, email) including 2 hours of tutoring: 250€

2. Admission costs

2.1. Admission fee 
(one-off payment. See special conditions for soft currencies and 'Third World' countries): 500€

3. Annual payments to the foundation

3.1. Annual payment (starting from the year after admission) 0€

3.2. Extension fee in Year Six: 450

4. Annual net-related costs

4.1. Travel and accommodation costs involved in participation in the plenary assembly.

 

TANDEM® licence (for private language schools and similar institutions

1. Preliminary costs (not compulsory)

1.1. Introductory course: 2-3 days attendance: 130€

or

Long-distance self-access course (video, cassettes, texts, e-mail) , including 2 hours with a tutor: 190€

2. Admission costs

2.1. Admission fee 
(One-off payment; special conditions for soft currencies and ‘Third World’ countries.): 500€ 

2.2. Admission fee for public institutions and those without commercial activities: 200€

3. Annual payments to the foundation

3.1. Annual payment: 450€

3.2. Annual payment  for public institutions and those without commercial activities: 200€

If the licence-holder sends or receives students on a commission basis, which is possible but not obligatory, the following applies:

4. Commission payable to the school who sends the students: 20%

Tandem International also has its own charges on which the co-ordinator will provide information.

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6. Marketing

6.1  Who is responsible for marketing ?

Following the structural reform of the Tandem net, decided on 10.3.2003, and reflected in the contract TF-TI  and the appropriate amendment of the statutes, support of the marketing of the schools became the task of Tandem International. The foundation now limits its activities to the distribution of brochures on teacher training and the diffusion of the Tandem Community through lectures, etc.

All following data refers to conditions applicable from February 2009. In the case of doubt, information provided by Tandem International applies.

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6.2 Is it possible to 'survive' with only students sent by TANDEM® ?

Some schools do get the majority of their students from the net whereas others receive none some years.

Without going into exact figures, there is a growing tendency for learners to contact by Internet schools in which they are interested. It is becoming ever more difficult to establish where they heard the name ‘Tandem’ for the first time as they have not been sent by another school but are responding to the prestige of Tandem as a whole.

In any case, no-one should rely upon learners sent by other Tandem schools or join Tandem® for that reason.

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6.3 May a school look for students locally and abroad?

Not only is it permissible but is absolutely essential. A school can only survive if it has a broad customer base for foreign languages taught locally plus receives foreigners who study the local language during the appropriate travel period.

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6.4 Are there market statistics for Tandem®?

The Tandem Fundazioa has marketing data available up until 2002 at which time responsibility for marketing was handed over to TI.

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6.5 How many students per year does TANDEM® guarantee?

Nobody in Tandem would ever undertake such a guarantee.

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6.6 When starting out, is there marketing information available that is common to all institutions?

During the introductory course, there is a short introduction to marketing and the selling of courses as carried out by other institutions.

Otherwise it is recommendable for beginners to consult a business consultant or a start-up agency which is familiar with local conditions.

There are also often subsidies available locally for new businesses.

"Tandem International" offers its own common marketing policy.

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6.7 Do all members and licence-holders use the same logo?

Yes, the green and lilac spiral which was developed by Benno Simma from Bozen/Bolzano for alpha&beta. This is used by TF members and licence-holders (with 'fundazioa' in a cloud) and by TI members (without 'fundazioa' but next to their own similar TI logo.) 

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6.8 Is participation in the common prospectuses obligatory?

No, it is voluntary, but in some countries (Germany, Spain) there was a strong tradition of sharing a common brochure. Now, there is a common brochure of Tandem International as a whole.

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6.9 How are publicity costs managed?

In order to maintain continuity and to keep costs to a minimum, publicity campaigns are shared in certain countries, or schools take turns to place classified ads.

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6.10 Who organizes sales abroad for individual TANDEM schools?

Each school supplies all others with their brochures for prospective customers, plus a folder which includes photos of the town, information on the town, travel details, etc. These brochures should be displayed in the reception area and there should be someone available to provide further information.

If someone wants to reserve a course abroad through their own school, they pay their commission and their school informs the school abroad. The school abroad sends confirmation to the interested learner, with a copy to the mediating school. The accommodation address is available immediately in some towns whilst in others it is provided on arrival.

As the registration form which is found in the prospectus of the respective school is used, there is no standard form.

If the participant does not start the course, the commission is passed on to the school abroad by way of compensation.

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6.11 How does one go about publicity in one’s one town for TANDEM schools abroad?

Publicity is very simple as the offer of Tandem schools, with their small classes, is very favourable in a market where there is little or no competition. For this reason, some schools have become well-known in their country as agents for language courses abroad. Others have been less active or are restricted legally in certain countries.

A particularly effective means of publicity is the assignement of scholarships. Experience shows us that courses taking place during certain months often have spare places. The vacancies can be offered out among the schools abroad as scholarships which are publicised in every school in the town and are then assigned by drawing lots or by some other criterium.

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6.12 How is the InterNet used?

There are five important tandem Webs .

which acts as a guide to offers available with the Tandem Foundation, Tandem International and the eTandem projects

which acts as a entrance into the ' Tandem Community ', a meeting place for all tandem users

mainly for teacher training

mainly for language course publicity

developed as an e-mail tandem project and subsidised by the EU, this web offers material for teachers as well as free e-tandem intermediation for pupils and students.

In addition, an InterNet search brings numerous other addresses to light, e.g. www.dfjw.org and www.ofaj.org from the French-German youth body.

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6.13  Must all other schools be mentioned on one’s own homepage?

According to the statutes from the pre-Internet period, schools in the same country had to be mentioned in the prospectuses, so that each school advertised for the rest. Traditionally, all schools in the whole world were mentioned which gave an impressive picture of the size of the tandem net.

With the increasing use of Webs this inclusion of all the names of all the schools is taken care of by a couple of central links:

1) as the net does not have a central reservations body, and a large number of questions about course are sent inappropriately to the foundation, it makes sense for members and licence-holders to first create a link “Everything about TANDEM”, www.tandemcity.info

2) also,  for trade-mark reasons, there has to be exposed the sentence "Tandem and Tandemcity are registered trade marks of Tandem Fundazioa." with the link to www.tandemcity.info .

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6.14  Is there a link exchange among the TANDEM schools?

Certain regions (Latin America and Spain) routinely display the names of schools in each others’ territories so that prospective learners can see instantly in how many countries they can learn a language.

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7. Miscellaneous

7.1 Can TANDEM® provide references in order to facilitate direct information?

Each tandem institution is a reference for the others. The acceptance of new members or the assignement of licences is the responsility of the foundation which also supplies all necessary information. However, any interested party is free to visit a tandem institution and make his/her own impressions.

"Tandem International" likewise has a system for the search and support of new members.

Experience shows us, however, that most institutions decide to join Tandem or take out a licence after they have had a few months contact with an institution that is already in Tandem®.

Please ask the foundation for a reference in your neighbourhood or select one from the member and licence-holder list on this Web.

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7.2 Who signs the membership/licence request?

Persons with the right to represent their institution

In the case of institutions like universities, it is not necessary for the rector to represent the institution. A department or institute can join independently and will be represented by its director. The whole process can be invoiced and recorded as a fee for teaching material.

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7.3  If someone wants to work in a Tandem institution, whom should they contact ?

As covered in point 4.2, the interested party should apply direct to the appropriate institution.

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7.4 Can Tandem institutions organise exchange programmes for other organisations?

Tandem institutions often receive orders to organise exchange programmes from other institutions in the neighbourhood. They are paid for this service.

If the proposal is of a more innovative character or a pilot scheme, e.g. an international youth meeting with 11 languages, it may be beneficial to consult the foundation.

On the other hand, neither the schools nor the foundation arrange individual exchange partnerships. The Tandem-Agency on the Bochum Tandem server  (see 6.12) was created for this purpose.

An overview of further sources for exchange is available on

www.tandemcity.info/formacion/en30_tandem-partnerships.htm

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7.5 Do Tandem institutions organise pen-pals?

The answer here is similar to that above in 7.4. The Tandem-Agency  intermediates in e-mail partnerships. Tandem schools probably display requests for penpals but cannot involve themselves in the setting up or follow-up support.

 

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